Horton Thenna

The Horton Plain is also in Nuwara Eliya, which is the largest and highest plain in Sri Lanka, and situated 7200 feet above the sea level. This is a tropical rain forest, and also a sanctuary. In this place has a very rich biodiversity. The endemic birds and animals live in this habitat. The stag is found everywhere. The Leopard, Wild boar and many other animals with Magpie, Jungle fowl and many more birds can be seen. There is a marvelous natural creation is cold the world’s end, that means the slope is very deep and always covered with mist. This grassy land was found by the Sir Robert Horton, when this place was governed the British.




Sigiriya is one of the world heritage sites in Sri Lanka. It is in the village of Sigiriya near Dambulla in the District of Matale. This is a fortress built on a rock, by king Kassayapa.

Kashyapa now placed himself on the throne and ruled at Anuradhapura. His subjects however were displeased with him over the foul murder of his father, and he lived in constant fear of rebellion. He also feared tht his brother, with an army from india, would invade Ceylon at any moment. So he moved his capital to sigiriya where, on the top of the Rock, rebuilt himself a large and beautiful palace. He built a wonderful staircase leading to it through the mouth of huge lion carved out of stone. He named the Rock “Sinha-giri” or “Sigiri”, which means “Lion Rock”. Round this built a moat to protect himself against enemies. On a side of the royal places he had a large pond made several watch-towers, built on summit of the Rock, overlooked the surrounding country

It attracts visitors from all over the world. It has got the name “Sigiriya” due to its entrance being built like the throat of a lion. In Sinhala giriya means the throat and singha means lion. Hence, he name Sigiriya came to exist.

This great piece of art stands proud depicting our past glory which had shone through prosperity and unity.

Even the modern archaeologists wonder at the technical know-how ancestors had in building this fortress. Half way up the rock you can see the world famous frescoes (murals) in a row of caves. The paints and the mixture used on the walls to make murals had been prepared according to a secret formula of our ancestors.

Then there is the mirror-wall “Katapath Paura” by the side of a passage. On this, you can see more than 700 Sinhala verses, grafitis written during the period from the 5th century to the 13th century by popular visitors admiring the beauty of those women. Then there are pleasure gardens, state-halls, ponds, a network of advanced toilets and many such things to be admired by a visitor.

It is wonderful to see on rainy days the net-work of pipe lines laid hidden work automatically shooting water as in a display. From faraway you can see this fortress has been built balancing on one axis. The moat built round the rock to defend it from enemy attacks is another important feature of it.

Sigiriya gives birth to a new picture about Sri Lanka. It speaks volumes about the wonders of our ancestors. So protect Sigiriya and then you will be protecting your island nation as well.




Sripada Mountain

Sripada is a religious place for the Buddhist, the Tamil and Christians believe this place belong to them also. The Sripada is on the summit of Samanala Mountain. This situated in Sabaragamuwa district.The height of this mountain is 2243 meters and is 7360 feet above sea level. There are four major rivers Mahaweli, Kelani, Kalu and Walawe begin from the top of this mountain. This is also known as Adam’s Peak, Sivanadi, Padam, Samanala Kanda and Sri Pada.

We (Buddhists) believe this is of the Load Buddha. There is a foot print carved out of the rock. As well as Christians are believed this is of the Adam’s foot print and Hindus believe God Shiva’s foot print. This most sacred place is worshiped and honored by the many thousands of pilgrimas.

There are two main routes to reach Sri Pada. One is the rail road or high road to go to Hatton and then proceed. The next is the Ratnapura- Kuruvita road. The pilgrims can go up to Nallathanni where the Makara Torana is built; from then onwards it is a four mile walk through tea estates and rugged mountainous areas. Mostly people climb the rock at night.

The devotees visit this place from December (full moon poya day) to May (vesak full moon poya day). There are few specific places such as, Seetha Gangula, Indi katupaana, Geththam paana, Heramiti paana and and the most difficult climb is Mahagiridabha find when the pilgrims climb Sripada. And also the pilgrims never forget to watch the sun rise or “Hiru Sevaya”,  which is wonderful seen from the east.

After paying homage to the foot print, the belfry is sounded by pilgrims who reach the top. This is done according to the number of times visited. This is one of the 16(sixteen) sacred place of Sri Lanka.







Bambarakanda Waterfall

Bmbarakanda is the highest attractive waterfall in Sri Lanka with highest of about 241 meters. This is located in Baddulla district. It is very beautiful and fascinate. The local and foreign people come to this place to watch them. This water collects into the Walawe River through the Kabara gala oya


Polonnaruwa – Ancient city

After the decline of the Anuradhapura kingdom, Polonnaruwa became the next seat of rule. The city which is the main town in the North Central Province could be approached when travelling along Trincomalle road, turn off from Habarana proceeding 28 miles on the Batticaloa road.

Polonnaruwa is a historical important city, which was ruled by the king Parakramabahu. This city was known as Kandavuru Nuwara, Pulasthipura and Jananathapura. Among the Kings who ruled in Plonnaruwa are the famous Kings like Vijayabahu I, Parakramabahu the great and King Nissanka Malla, King Kalinga Magha who ruled from Polonnaruwa destroyed Buddhist place of worship and burnt the books. There is a stone of king Parakramabahu also made by the rock. One of the biggest reservoir called “Parakrama Samudraya” collect large some of water.

There are lot of religious monument can be seen even today. The world famous sleeping statue of Load Buddha is carved out of the rock. The other place known as Gal Viharaya, Watadageya,Nishshsanka latha mandapaya are the remaining ruins of those ancient places. They are also built out of the stone pillars.


Gal viharaya (sleeping statue of Load Buddha)

Passing Kirivehera and proceeding northwards, one sees the Galvihara at Polonnaruwa which was earlier named as “Uttararamaya”. The colossal figures carved on the face of the living rock at Galvihara and the walls constructed to protect the statue can be with certainty be taken as representative of the type of the Buddha image that was common during the Polonnaruwa period. These have been destroyed and only the foundation can be seen. Four colossal Buddha images have been carved from one large rock. At the left while facing the shrine is a sedent Buddha. This image is preserved. In the background of the statue on the edge of the rock is a carving of a pandol.

It is Vidyadhara Cave shrine hollowed out with the alter, a stone umbrella (supported by a stone shaft over the dome of the stupa) and other decorations and the sedent Buddha image is carved out of the living rock. This is an artificial cave. Although these are preserved all the painting has been destroyed.

The statue of the Buddha standing with arms crosses over the chest and with a sorrowful expression in the countenance and is the only one is kind in Ceylon.  And also at the extreme right is an image of the recumbent Buddha. A small section of this has peeled off. There is also a view that this image depicts the pariniwaana of the Load Buddha. (Passing away of the Buddha) It was built by king Parakramabahau in B.C. 12. This is carved out of the rock. The long of this statue is 42 feet and this statue is special in the Gal Viharaya.


Ran kothvehera

This is largest Dageba in Polonnaruwa. It was built by King Nissanka Malla. There is a rock inscription assigned to the King. There are many shrine rooms around the Dageba. The height of Rankoth vehera is 180 feet and 550 feet is extent. This stupa thus surpassed in magnitude every stupa of that type built during the Polonnaruwa period. There are a number of Buddhist shrines around it. This is the largest stupa in Polonnaruwa.



Plonnaruwe kirivehera

The original shape of this Dageba has not changed yet. This Dageba was contacted to memorize the king Prakramabahu’s wife subadra. This height of Dageba is 80 feet and 88 feet is extent.  This large building is situated to the north of Lankathilake Vihara. Rankoth Vehera is of the same architectural pattern as the Kiri Vehera, but far exeeds it in dimension. The best preserved of the Polonnaruwa stupas is Kiri Vehera, which being the largest monument of this type at Polonnaruwa. The white plaster on the stupa can still be seen. This is also assigned to Parakramabahu I.



Nishshanka latha mandapaya

Nissanka Latha Mandapaya is a mantion, which was built by the king Nissnka Malla. This maintains was made for exhibition of Tooth Relic and this attractive Pavillion named Nissanka Latha Mandapaya may have been used for chanting of sacred protective texts (pirith).

This was a square shape building and made out of the stone pillars. At the top of the pillars a lotus flower is carved on each of them. It is not definitely known why this small building consisting of stone pillars with decorative scroll design was constructed. In the center is a stone platform and the space is quite small. This is enclosed by a small railing.

Nelum Pokuna  in Polonnaruwa (Lotus Pond)

Passing Demala Maha Seya and proceeding a little distance, and turning towards the left are a beautiful pond Known as the lotus pond. One of the most fascinating sights in Polonnaruwa is a bath cut in stone, resembling a full blown eight-petaled lotus. Surrounding this is a brick wall constructed for its protection from what remain of this place shows that water sent to the pond through pipelines.



The Statue of King Parakramabahu

North of Pothgul Vihara on a sligt elevation is a statue of granite. This remarkably fine statue is 11 ½ feet high, rock-cut nearly in the full round of a king probably Parakramabahu I himself.  This statue bearing in his hands an object like an ola leaf is facing the Pothgul Vihara. Therefore it can be concluded that there would have been some connection between pothgul Vihara and the person representing the statue. The body of the satue is drapped in a robe, with a sash round the waist has a headgear resembling an ancient Turkish hat and a yellow thread on the shoulder, and bare bodied above the waist.


Pothgul Viharaya

One of the largest tanks known as Parakrama Samudraya was constructed by King Parakramabahau I. he is said to have declared that “Not even a drop of water that comes from the rain must flow into the ocean, without being made useful to  men” .

When walking about a mile the bund of this tank is a building of a unique type, is the so called Pothgul Viharaya. The building is a rotunda. In the surrounding area are many ruins and it is accepted that this would have been an educational institution consisting of a large library.




Is a circular relic house or house built encircling a stupa. The Watadage at Plonnaruwa represents the utmost elaboration of the circular chetiyaghara in Ceylon. This is a beautiful circular structure. It consists of two concentric circular stone terraces one above the other. On the stone pillars is constructed the roof of the building.  A conventional entrance leads to the first terrace, from this to the upper terrace there are 4 entrances at the 4 cardinal points. The upper terrace housed a small Dagaba with 4 statues depicting posture of tranquility (Samadhi). The floor is of stone slabs. According to the rock inscription found there, it is believed that King Nissanka Malla constructed this building.



Only one building is assigned to King Vijabahu I and that is the temple of the Tooth on the quadrangle (Dalada Maluwa) in front of the Watadage. This consisted of several storeys. The Tooth Relic would have been placed on the upper story.




This building is situated close to Galptha insciptions. It is believed that this temple of Tooth is assigned to King Nissanka Malla. On the western side of the building is the stairway consisting of 10 stone steps. Therefore it could be concluded that this building would have been multi storeyed. (The name is due to a belief that it was completed in 60 hours)


Sathmahal Prasadaya

A short distance from Vatadage and close to Galpatha is situated the Sathmahal Prasada. This building has not been identified as yet. The Sathmahal Prasada was a square pyramidal tower of seven diminishing stage of 7 storeys is situated at the North Eastern, corner of the quanrangle (Dalada Maluwa) at Polonnaruwa. As this consists of seven storeys this is known as Sathmahal Prasada. It is doubted whether it was a stupa of a different shape.



Anuradapura – Ancient city

Anuradhapura is one of the ancient kingdoms in Sri Lanka. It is religious city, which is situated North Central Province. Where the ancient place of worship are situated, is demarcated as the sacred city and is well guarded.

Vijaya the traditional 1st King of Ceylon came and settled in Thambapanni or Thammenna. His ministers founded settlements, given them their own names. One such settlement was Anuradhagrama, founded by Anuradha. Anuradhagrama then acquired importance as the chief village in the area and came to be called Anuradhapura.

Theravada Buddhism was introduced to Ceylon during the reign of King Dewanampiyathissa. It was Mahinda the son of King Ashoka who introduced Buddhism to Ceylon. By his Buddhist missionary activity he converted the Sinhalese to Buddhism and his sister Sangamitta brought with her the southern branch of the Bo tree and planted it at Anuradhapura. The order of Bhikkhunis was also established at this time.

King Dutugemunu was considered as the national hero of the Anuradhapura period. Born in South of Ceylon, King Dutugemunu’s main ambition was to save Ceylon from the Tamil and be the benefactor of Buddhism. During the reign of King Valagamba, Tamils invaded Ceylon defeated him and ruled from Anuradhapura. King Valagamba’s reign is marked by two important events. One was the 1st schism in Buddhism in Ceylon and the other was the committing of the Scriptures, the commentaries and the tradition to writing at Aluvihara.the 9th and 10th centuries saw the decline of the Anuradhapura kingdom.upto this time Kings of Anuradhapura governed this kingdom without much difficulty. After Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa became the capital.

This city was ruled by many kings. King Dutugemunu was the well famous king, who created many monuments. There is lot of dilapidated ruins can be seen even today. Most of the architecture creations were made stones. The stone pillars and many ruins are there. In this religious city there are eight scared places. There are called “Atamasthana”.

  1. Sri maha bodhiya

This Bo tree was brought from India to Sri Lanka by Nun Sangamiththa (Daughter of King Devanampiyatissa). The Bo tree helped to the Load Buddha to become the enlightenment. Therefore this Bo tree is respected by the Buddhist. This is in the Mahamevunawa and it is consider the oldest tree in Sri Lanka.

This incident took place a few months after the arrival of Mahinda Thera. Amidst much rejoicing and ceremony, this tree was planted at Maha Mevuna Uyana. It was planted on a high terrace about 21 feet above the ground and Surround by railings and today it is one of the most sacred relics of the Buddhists in Ceylon. There are other Bo-trees in close proximity to this sacred Bo-tree. The parapet wall round the compound where the Bo-tree is planted is about 700 feet in length. This wall was constructed during the reign of King Kirthi Sri Rajasingha, to protect it from the wild elephants.

 2. Lowamahapaya

It is situated between Ruwanweliseya and Sri Maha Bodhiya. It is also known as the Brazen Place or Lohaprasadaya. In ancient times the building included the refectory and the Uposathagara (Uposatha house). There was also a simamalake where the sangha assembled on poya days to recite the formula of the confessional. This was built to treat for sick Buddhist monk.

This is a wonderful creation built by King Dutugemunu described as an edifice of nine storeys, was a building of this class. It was a building; which was built by the stone pillars. There are about 1600 stone pillars. There were nine floors in that building. One side of the building was 400 feet in length. As the roof was covered with tiles made of bronze, this was known as the brazen palace. It is believed that it took 6 years for the construction of the building and the plan was brought from the heavens. The building was completely destroyed during the reign of King Saddhatissa. Today we can only the stone pillars of ground floor.

3. Ruwanweliseya

This Dagaba was built by King Dutugemunu. This situated a few yards away from Lowamahapaya. The height of it is 338 feet and the pinnacle of Ruwanweliseya is 24 feet in height. The crest gem on the pinnacle is a gift from Burma.

This is one of the examples to show their architectural ability. Some of the relics of Load Buddha are deposited in this Dageba. This is known as some other names like “Swarnamali Seya, Rathnamali Seya and Mahathupa”.  The Thupavansa gives a complete account about the construction of Ruwanweliseya.

This Dagaba was built on a firm foundation. It is recorded that inside the dagaba are enshrine valuble gems status made out of gold, various valuable objects and also relics of the Buddha which measures about a Don. On the four side of the Stupa are the frontispieces (wahalkada). The courtyard on which the stone tablets are laid is known as Salapatala courtyard. Below the Salapatala courtyard is the compound made of Sand (Velimaluwa). On the four sides of the compound are the parapet walls with its figures of Elephants and has been made to appear as though it was supported by the Elephants. There are 1900 figures of Elephants on the wall consisting of 475 on each side. Therefore it is known as the Elephant compound. In the temple courtyard are the old models of Ruwanweliseya made of stone, a statue of King Dutugemunu worshipping the Dagaba. In the image house situated in the temple courtyard are 4 statues of the Buddha who have attained Buddhahood in this aeon (kalpa) and future Buddha (Maithree). All these creation are very old.

4. Thuparamaya

Thera Mahinda himself introduced Theravada Buddhism and also chetiya worship to Ceylon. At his request, this Dageba was built by king Dewanampiyathissa. This is first dageba in Sri Lanka after the introduction of Buddhism.

The Right collarbone of the Lord Buddha is enshrined, as the Relic of Thuparama stupa. It is located in the sacred area of Anuradhapura, Mahamewna uyana. The name Thuparamaya comes from “stupa” and “aramaya” which is a residential complex for monks.

Thuparamaya has been built in the shape of a heap of paddy. This dageba was destroyed from time to time. During the reign of King Agbo II it was completely destroyed and the king restored it. What we have today is the construction of dagaba, done in 1862 A.D. As it is today, after several renovations in the course of the centuries, the monument has a diameter of 59 feet, at the base. The dome is 11 feet 4 inches in height from the ground 164 ½ diameter. The compound is paved with granite and there are 2 rows of stone pillars round the dagaba. During the early period vatadage was built round the dagaba.


5. Lankaramaya

This is a smallest Dageba in out of the Atamasthana. This Dageba was built by king Valagamba, in an ancient place at Galhebakada. Nothing is known about the ancient from of the stupa and later this was renovated. The round courtyard of the stupa seems to be 10 feet above the ground. The diameter of the stupa is 45 feet. The courtyard is circular in shape and the diameter is 132 feet. The ruins show that there are rows of stone pillars and it is no doubt that there has been a house built encircling the stupa (vatadage) to cover it.

6. Abhayagiriya Dagaba

This is 2nd highest bricks monument in the world. This is a spherical shape of Dageba. It was built by King Valagamba. He waged war with the Tamil and was defeated. When he fled a Nigantha named Giri shouted words of derisive mockery at him.Later the king collected an army attacked the Tamils by slaying the last of their leaders, and recovered the throne he had lost. It is said that he demolished Nigantaramaya (the temple of the Niganthas) and built the Abhayagiri Vihara in the same premises. Shortly after this event, the monks of the Mahavihara took disciplinary action against one of the monk of the Abhayagiri Vihara, for violating a rule of the vinaya. There after the monk of the Abhayagiri Vihara founded a separate sect there. King Valagamba’s reign is marked by an important event – the first schism in Buddhism in Ceylon. Most learned bhikkus lived in Abhayagiri Vihara. It consisted of a large library. King Parakrambahu renovated Abhayagiri Vihara. Then the height is said to have been 140 cubits. In the year 1875 Abhayagiri Vihara which had a diameter of 307 feet at its base, stood to a height of 231 feet. The relics of the Buddha is said to have been enshrined in a figure of a bull made out of thick gold.

7. Jethawanarama Dagaba

This is a largest stupa in Sri Lanka and it was built by King Mahasen. It is a highest bricks monument in the whole world. A part of Sash (belt tied by the Buddha) is believed to be enshrined here. Its height is said to be 400 feet. This stupa belongs to the Sagalika sect. the compound of the stupa is 8 acres. One side of the stupa is 576 feet in length. The 4 flight of steps at the four sides is 28 feet in depth. The doorpost to the shrine which is situated at the courtyard is 27 feet in height. There are some stone inscriptions in the courtyard with the names of donors inscribed.


8. Mirisawetiya Stupa

King Dutugeminu after defeating King Elara, built the Mirisaweti Stupa. After placing the Buddha relics in the scepter, he had gone to Thissawewa for a bath leaving the scepter. After the bath he returned for the place where the scepter was placed, and it is said that it could not be moved. The stupa was built in the place where the scepter stood. It is also said that he remembered that he partook a chilly curry without offering it to the Sangha. In order to punish himself he built the Mirisawetiya Dagaba. Therefore this Dageba was made to symbolize this event and this name was given.

The extent of this land is about 50 acres and the height of it is around 60 feet. Although the King Kashyapa I and King Kashyapa V renovated this from time to time it was dilapidated. What stands today is the renovation done by the cultural Triangle Fund.


Samadhi Buddha Statue

In Anuradhapura the Samadhi Statue is one of the greatest master pieces. This is carved out of the stone. This symbolizes the meditating picture of Load Buddha. That is way this called “Samadhi Statue”. It built at Anuradhapura in the Mahamevunawa Park. It is said that this is one of the best pieces of sculpture. The statue is 8 feet in height and made of granite, the posture of meditation in which Buddha sits in the cross-legged position with upturned palms, placed one over the other on the lap.

Sandakada pahana (Moonstone)

The Moon stone is also in Anuradhapura. This is the one and only creation founding Sri Lanka. This was created at the entrance of temples or the royal palace. This is a half spherical shape and there are many animals are carved line by line.


Awukana Buddha Statue

Awukana is situated in Anuradhapura district and could be reached by travelling along Kurunegala-Dambulla road or through Galewela-Kalawewa road. This is one of the largest statues in Ceylon and situated facing Kalawewa. This standing Buddha statue including the pedestal is 42 feet in height. The right hand depicts the Abhaya Mudra (the posture of hand in icons in which the raised upper arm of the right hand is held, palm outwards indicating freedom from fear). The left hand shows that it is holding the robe. One of the special features of this statue is that both hands are turned upwards. On the head is the Siraspatha (a feature over head of the Buddha statue), excluding the Siraspatha and the pedestal the height is 38’10’.

The rock cut colossus at Awukana, which is almost in the round and there being a narrow strip left to hold the image to the rock is one of the magnificent statues of Ceylon. From the ruins of the foundation and the walls, it can be seen that the statue would have been enclosed in a building. The hood over the statue is a modern construction. It is believed that King Dhatusena the architect of Kalawewa is the builder of the statue.



Isurumuniya Viharaya

In situated near Tissawewa and was built by King Dewanampiyathissa. After 500 children of high-caste were ordained, Isurumuniya was built for them to reside. King Kashyapa I (473-491 A.D.) renovated this viharaya and named it as “Boupulvan, Kasubgiri Radmaha Vehera” this name is derived from names of his two daughters and his name. There is a viharaya connected to a cave and above is a cliff. A small stupa is built on it. It can be seen that the constructional work of this stupa belong to the present period. Lower down on both sides of a cleft; in a rock that appears to rise out of a pool have been carved the figures of elephants. On the rock is carved the figures of horse. The carving of Isurumuniya lovers on the slab has been brought from another place and placed it there. A few yards away from this Vihara is the Magul Uyana.




Kuttam pokuna (Twin onds)

This is another monument called “Twin Ponds”. There are two equal made out of the stone. It was made during the reign of king 1st Agbo. It is believed that this was made for the bathing purpose of the Buddhist monk. It is also an outstanding creation of the ancient time.

The most magnificent specimen of bathing tanks is the pair known as Kuttam Pokuna at Anuradhapura. This is situated in close proximity to Abhayagiri Vihara. The garden which separates these 2 ponds is 18 ½ feet. The largest of this pair is 132 feet in length and 51 feet in breadth, while the smaller is 91 feet long the breadth is the same. The depth of the smaller pond is 14 feet and the larger pond is 18 feet. The sides and the bottom of the ponds were faced with well-cut granite slabs. Round the pond is a magnificent wall. Leading to the pond are a beautiful flight of steps on both sides, and decorated with “Punkalas” and scroll design. There were underground ducts bringing water into these ponds and others emptying them. A wall is built to enclose the ponds, and it is a small compound. These historical and ancient monuments are protected.


  • These historical and ancient monuments are protected.


Kanneliya Forest in Sri Lanka

[et_pb_section bb_built=”1″][et_pb_row][et_pb_column type=”4_4″][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.0.89″ background_layout=”light”]


[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.0.89″ background_layout=”light”]

Location: Kanneliya forest Reserve is located in the galle District in the Southern Province about 125 km away from Colombo. It is one of the largest forest reserves with a high bio-diversity in Sri Lanka.

Waterfalls:Inside the forest there are many streams adding life to the vegetation. Although deforestation has affected them, these streams create several beautiful cascades. There is a high rainfall in Kanneliya from May to July and again in the months of October and November, making it an ideal time to see waterfalls. The anagimale falls is the closest waterfall to the entrance of the forest reserve. It is just 2km away from the entrance. You need to go a little deeper into the forest to see the beautiful waterfall called Narangas Ella.

Bio-diversity: there are 301 plant species at Kanneliya forest reserve, some 133 animal species and 59 species of birds making it very rich in biodiversity.

[/et_pb_text][et_pb_text _builder_version=”3.0.89″ background_layout=”light”]


[/et_pb_text][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][et_pb_row][et_pb_column type=”4_4″][et_pb_map _builder_version=”3.0.89″ address=”Kanneliya Rd, Sri Lanka” zoom_level=”17″ address_lat=”6.249870034390829″ address_lng=”80.33351987850415″ mouse_wheel=”off” mobile_dragging=”on” use_grayscale_filter=”off” /][/et_pb_column][/et_pb_row][/et_pb_section]